**Lecture 1:**

Introduction to Thermodynamics Role of thermodynamic Principles in real-life situations active learning and attitude of a true student Course Outline Syllabus

- System, Definition and Types of Systems Closed, Open, Isolated; System properties

**Lecture 2:**

- Postulates of Thermodynamics:

- (n+2) rule
- Existence of stable equilibrium

- Definitions of:

- State
- Point and Path Functions
- Work

- Deriving expression for Work from first principles (force balance)
- Adiabatic work interactions (most direct path from one point to another)
- Postulate III of Thermodynamics: Change of state is possible in at least one route and the adiabatic work is identified from the corresponding end states

**Lecture 3:**

- Definition of Heat
- Postulate IV of Thermodynamics or Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics: A&B are in equilibrium; B&C are in equilibrium, then A&C are in equilibrium
- First law of Thermodynamics: dQ = dU + dW; importance of sign conventions
- First law as applied to closed systems
- Ideal gas concept applied to gases; Enthalpy, Internal Energy and relation between the heat capacities of gases

**Lecture 4:**

- First law as applied to open systems
- Work refinements Types of Work: Electrical, Mechanical, Surface Tension, Elastic, Kinetic Energy, Rotational Relativistic
- Additional Enthalpies

- Sensible Heat
- Latent Heat: -Change of Phase, Chemical Reaction, Nuclear Reaction

**Lecture 5:**

Flow Systems:

Force balance on steady-state, steady flow systems

- Isothermal Expansion
- Converging Nozzle
- Heat Exchanger
- Adiabatic periodic piston
- Ideal isothermal turbine
- Ideal adiabatic turbine

Lecture 7*:*

Work Energy cycles with examples Flow Systems Batch
systems Bernoulli equation as a special case of 1^{st} law of
thermodynamics

;

Ideal Isothermal Turbine

The difference in the work produced in an adiabatic batch vs. flow system is related to the difference in D H & D U = D (PV)

= -nC_{p} (T_{2}-T_{1})

Example 4: Adiabatic Expansion @ Constant Volume

For P >> P_{intial}; T
ΰ g T_{e}

Lecture 8*:*

Definition of Path Function

Part II of Example 4 Constant Adiabatic Expansion @ Constant Pressure

Example 8 Home Work problem 2.32: Real Gas work:
Isothermal batch
systems Home Work Problem 2.29:
; H_{2}-H_{1}
= (v_{1}^{2}-v_{2}^{2})/2

Lecture 9*:*

Historical approach to the second law of thermodynamics Carnot (heat engine) and Clausius (entropy)

Examples demonstrating the Entropy phenomena, Concept of Equilibrium, Heat and Work

Definition of Reversible process Rankine cycle

Concept of Thermodynamic Temperature

Lecture 10*:*

Definition of Thermodynamic Efficiency (h ) and its derivation

Introduction to Entropy Definition, Concept of Entropy from heat engines

For any isolated system D S_{system}
³ 0;

For any system D S_{system}+D
S_{surroundings ³ }0

Homework Problems: 5.5, 5.8, 5.14

Entropy and 2^{nd} law of Thermodynamics
Definition and derivation of thermodynamic efficiency Efficiency limits
functionality

Carnot Cycle: Definition and derivation of Carnot efficiency

Clausius Theorem: Any process can be broken into equivalent adiabatic and isothermal steps

For a process with less than a complete cycle, entropy is defined as:

Entropy is a state function; Entropy of the Universe is never conserved

Lecture 11*:*

Combined 1^{st} and 2^{nd} law of Thermodynamics:
Conservation of Energy with respect to Entropy

Ideal gases and 2^{nd} law of Thermodynamics: Isochoric process,
Isobaric Processes, Isothermal processes, Processes from (P_{1}, V_{1},
T_{1}) to (P_{2}, V_{2}, T_{2}) with respect
to Entropy and Adiabatic reversible processes: Isentropic processes

(n+2) rule for a single phase system with respect to Entropy

Examples of Second law of Thermodynamics, Reversible work, to calculate change in Entropy: Bird problem, Hilsch tube etc.