| Summer Research Announcement in Hawaii
Teaching, Courses, etc.
interests are in the areas of environmentally-conscious chemical
life-cycle assessment, environmental transport processes, and
Environmentally-Conscious Design of Chemical Processes
economic growth and expansion of industrial activity will adversely
affect human health and environmental quality unless impacts are
reduced at the source
of waste generation, that is within industrial processes themselves.
design is the integration of environmental concerns into the design and
operation of industrial processes, with the goal of minimizing the
also the hazardous characteristics) of the manufactured products and of
byproducts of industrial activity. With the support of the National
Foundation, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and private
research is being conducted in the following areas: i) methods of
environmental impacts of industrial processes, ii) optimization of
process flowsheets to minimize impacts and maximize profits, and iii)
development of design guidance based on environmental assessments.
and Shonnard, D.R. A Systematic Framework for Environmental -Conscious
Chemical Process Design: Early and Detailed Design Stages, Industrial
& Engineering Chemistry Research, in press.
Roelant, G.J., Kemppainen, A.J., and Shonnard, D.R., Environmental,
Energy, and Economic Evaluations of the Automobile Assembly Paint
Process, Journal of Industrial Ecology, in press.
Chen, H., Rogers, T.N., Barna, B.A.,
Shonnard, D.R., 2003, Automating Hierarchical
Environmentally-Conscious Design Using Integrated Software: VOC
Recovery Case Study, Environmental Progress, 22 (3), 147-160.
Wen, Y., and Shonnard, D.R., 2003, Environmental and Economic
Assessments of Heat Exchanger Networks for Optimum Minimum Approach
Temperature, Computers & Chemical Engineering, 27(11), 1577-1590.
Chen, H., Badenschier, S.M., and Shonnard D.R., 2002,
Uncertainty analysis for toxicity assessment of chemical process
designs, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 41(18), 4440-4450.
Chen, H., Wen, Y., Waters, M.D., and Shonnard, D.R., 2002,
Design guidance for chemical processes using environmental and economic
assessments”, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 41(18), 4503 – 4513.
Chen, H., Barna, B.A., and Rogers, T.N., Shonnard, D.R., 2001,
screening methodology for improved solvent selection using economic and
environmental Assessments, Clean Products and Processes, 3(3), 290-302.
Raymond, J.W., Rogers, T.N., Shonnard, D.R., Kline, A.A., 2001,
A review of structure-based biodegradation estimation methods, Journal
of Hazardous Materials, B84, 189-215.
Allen, D.T. and Shonnard, D.R., 2001, Green engineering:
Environmentally conscious design of chemical processes and products,
AIChE Journal,47(9), 1906-1910.
Shonnard, D.R., Rogers, T.N., Barna, B.A., Crowl, D.A., Oman, E.J.,
Radecki, P.P., Herlevich Jr., J.A., and Parikh, P.B., 2001,
“Integrated assessment methodologies and software tools for process
design: economic, environmental, safety, and decision analyses”, in
“Process Design Tools for the Environment”, ed. S.K. Sikdar and M.
El-Halwagi, Taylor and Francis, New York, 39-64.
Shonnard, D.R. and Hiew, D.S., 2000, Comparative environmental
assessments of VOC recovery and recycle design alternatives for a
gaseous waste stream”, Environmental Science and Technology, 34(24),
Life Cycle Assessment/Sustainability
Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a method that allows for a comprehensive
assessment of environmental impacts for a product or process. The
scope of the assessment is over the entire life cycle; starting with
extraction of raw materials from the environment, manufacturing,
transportation, use in society, recycle, reuse, and final treatment or
disposal in the environment. Mulitple indicators of environmental
impacts are used; for example air quality issues, water emissions,
solid waste, and resource consumption. The purpose of LCA is to
compare alternative products or processes that meet the same function.
An example might be alternative fuels to meet a specific
requirement (conventional gasoline versus ethanol). Studies conducted
far include a comparison of regional cellulosic feedstocks for ethanol
and alternative beneficial uses for industrial hazardous wastes and
waste (alternatives to landfill).
Kemppainen, A.J. and
Shonnard, D.R., Comparative Life Cycle Assessments for Biomass to
Ethanol Production from Different Regional Feedstocks, submitted
to Biotechnology Progress.
Shonnard, D.R., Kicherer, A., and Saling,
P., 2003, Industrial Applications Using BASF Eco-Efficiency
Analysis: Perspectives on Green Engineering Principles, Environmental
and Technology, 37(23), 5340-5348.
J. R., J. C. Crittenden, M. J. Small, D. R. Shonnard, D. R. Hokanson,
Q. Zhang, H. Chen, S. A. Sorby, V. U. James, J.W. Sutherland, J. L.
Schnoor, 2003, "Sustainability Science and Engineering: The
Emergence of a New Metadiscipline," Environmental Science and
Technology, 37(23), 5314-5324.
are important in many environmental applications. An understanding of
transport processes is critical for predicting pollutant dispersion in
the environment and in the design of some in-situ waste treatment
processes. Research projects involve diffusion of volatile organic
compounds in soils, atmospheric dispersion, emission estimation from
area sources using inverse modeling, and microorganism transport in
groundwater. A large-scale aquifer simulator apparatus is
available for complex transport and remediation studies (Subsurface
Q., J.C. Crittenden, D. Shonnard, and J.R. Mihelcic, 2003,
"Development and evaluation of an environmental multimedia fate model
CHEMGL for the Great Lakes region," Chemosphere, 50(10),
P.A. and Shonnard, D.R., 2000, An improved spectrophotometric
method for studying the effects of ionic strength on bacteria transport
media, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 66(2), 763-768.
P.A. and Shonnard, D.R., 1999, Modeling the effects of
in ionic strength on the attachment kinetics of Pseudomonas fluorescens
in saturated sand columns, Water Resources Research, Vol. 35,
D.R. and Bell, R.L., 1994, The effects of nonlinear sorption on
the diffusion of volatile organic compounds from air-dry soils. A
theoretical analysis. Journal of Hazardous Materials , 37(3),
Shonnard, D.R., Chang, D.P.Y., and Bell, R.L., 1994, An
for determination of upwind area source-strength from downwind
measure-ments. Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association
, 44(10), 1204-1213.
D.R., Taylor, R.T., Boro, C.O., Hanna, M.L., and Duba, A.G., 1994,
Bacterial attachment patterns created by horizontal injection into a
two-dimensional miniature aquifer-simulator: Applied to Methylosinus
trichosporium OB3b, Water Resources Research 30(1), 25-35.
D.R. and Bell, R.L., 1993, Benzene emissions from a
contaminated air-dry soil with fluctuations of soil temperature or
relative humidity. Environmental Science and Technology
R.T., Duba, A.G., Durham, W.B., Hanna, M.L., Jackson, K.J., Knapp,
R.B., Jovanovich, M.C., Knezovich, J.P., Shah, N.N., Shonnard, D.R.,
Wijesinghe, A.M., 1993, In situ bioremediation of
tricholorethylene-contaminated water by a resting-cell methanotrophic
microbial filter, Hydrological Sciences Journal , 38 (4), 323.
D.R., Bell, R.L., and Jackman, A.P. 1993, The effects of
nonlinear sorption on the diffusion of benzene and dichloromethane from
two air-dry soils, Environmental Science and Technology 27(3),
D.R., Taylor, R.T., Tompson, A., and Knapp, R.B. 1992,
Hydrodynamic effects on microcapillary motility and chemotaxis assays
of Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b, Applied and Environmental
Microbiology 58(9), 2737-2743.
D.R. and Bell, R.L. 1989, Diffusion experiments in soils and
their implications on modeling transport, in "Pollutants in a
Multimedia Environment", ed. Y. Cohen et al., Plenum Press, New York.
D.R. and Whitaker, S. 1989, The effective thermal conductivity
for a point-contact porous medium: An experimental study, Int J.
Heat Mass Transfer 32(3), 503-512.
R.W. and Shonnard, D.R., 1986, Electrokinetic study of the role
of modifying agents in flotation of salt-type minerals, AIChE
Journal 32(5), 865-868.
A current project
is investigating the use of in-vitro mammalian cell bioassays
as indicators of exposure and toxic effects of hazardous chemicals. The
in-vitro methods in our study
utilize bioluminescense (catalyzed by the enzyme luciferase) as a
for cell health status (intracellular ATP level). In the presence
increasing concentration of a toxic chemical, ATP levels within the
drop. An improved luciferase that is not inhibited by the test
is the objective of this work. In-vitro methods can reduce reliance on
studies for determining toxicological properties of High Production
C., Kelly, J., Carroll, R., Rybina, I., Shonnard, D.R., Improving
properties of Luciferase for ATP-based in vitro cytotoxicity
measurements of HPV chemicals, Presentation Record for the AIChE 2003
Annual Meeting, November 17-21, San Francisco, CA,. Session: 
Biotechnology Applications for Toxicity Screening.
Engineering Curriculum Development
development projects have focussed on environmental applications,
especially Green Engineering and Sustainability, and in biochemical
engineering. Green Engineering is the development and
commercialization of industrial processes that are economically
feasible and reduce the risk to human health and the environment.
Recent efforts in Green Engineering involve a textbook and
national/regional workshops for educating engineering faculty on these
emerging design and computational tools.
D.R., Allen, D.T., Nguyen, N., and Austin, S., 2003, Green
Engineering Education Through a US EPA/Academia Collaboration, Environmental
Science and Technology, 37(23), 5253-5462.
J. R., J. C. Crittenden, M. J. Small, D. R. Shonnard, D. R. Hokanson,
H. Chen, S. A. Sorby, V. U. James, J.W. Sutherland, J. L. Schnoor, 2003,
"Sustainability Science and Engineering: The Emergence of a New
Metadiscipline," Environmental Science and Technology, 37(23),
D.R., Fisher, E.R., and Caspary, D., 2003, Integrated
Bioprocess Experiments for the Senior Laboratory: Fermentation for
L-Lysine Production, Chemical Engineering Education,
D.R., Allen, D.T., Weil-Austin. S.A., Nguyen, N., 2003, US
EPA/academia collaboration for a Green Engineering textbook for
Chemical Engineering, Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy,
D.T. and Shonnard, D.R. (and other contributors), “Green Engineering:
Environmentally Conscious Design of Chemical Processes, Prentice-Hall,
Upper Saddle River, NJ, 2002, ISBN 0-13-061908-6.
Shonnard, D.R., "Solutions Manual For - Green Engineering:
Environmentally-Conscious Design of Chemical Processes", Prentice-Hall,
Shonnard, D.R. and Deshpande, P.A., 2001, Column transport
experiments for dissolved pollutants and colloids, Chemical
Engineering Education, 35(3), 222-228.
J.S., Mayer, A.S., and Shonnard, D.R., 1998, Multidisciplinary
subsurface remediation courses: fundamentals, experiments, and design
projects. Journal of Engineering Education, 87(5), 555-566.